Dual or Complemental in Vocational Training
Which concept would be suitable for TVET Vietnam?
The dual system is considered as a successful and well-known model of TVET all over the world. It might be a proper solution in order to solve skills mismatch and skills shortage, which the Vietnamese industry names as a “main obstacle” for developing and also expanding their manufacture in Vietnam. In the report about the innovations in quality apprenticeships in the United States, Aring with collaboration of La Rue has mentioned the case of German companies in the USA such as BMW, Volkswagen and Siemens, which have brought the dual model to the countries where they have settled their plants and have implemented the model but using a different name e.g. Quality apprenticeship (Aring 2014, 5). Another example is the case of the company Bosch in TVET Vietnam, which has brought this model to Vietnam and collaborated with a state-run vocational school (Lilama2) to train the workforce for itself. Unfortunately, TVET Vietnam stays on the drive of the supply-side until now, in which the TVET institutions design and provide the training course, based on their perception without paying attention to skills demand from the Vietnamese industry (JICA 2014, 1). The reason for this obstacle is that the TVET institutions have difficulty to access the need of the Vietnamese industry. Consequently, many Vietnamese companies struggle to re-train their newcomers after recruitment. This is the form of In-house-training or training at work, conducted right after recruitment and directly at the workplace. In order to save time and costs in the term of training, these training courses normally have the tendency to focus on functionality, which are designed tightly fit to the job at the workplace, for example, welder and machine assembler training, which only took place for 3 or 4 months to adapt to the demands of the workplace. Therefore, training-at-work has been implemented informally in most of Vietnamese companies. In comparison, with the dual model in Germany, it has a similar character: It is directly connected with the workplace and qualified mentors are responsible for the instruction. However, the company has difficulty in defining skills and knowledge, which could be used as reference for developing a road map of training and controlling the quality of these training courses. Therefore, TVET institutions in Vietnam provide merely training courses, which are only built on their perceptions of necessary skills and knowledge about the careers in the industry instead of sufficient consultants from employee about the employer’s skills demands (JICA 2014, 1). The reason is that they have difficulty to grasp the know-how on demand of workforce from industry. The identification of skills needed is not a simple analysis or synthesis process because the nature of work is nowadays more complex than what it used to be and tends to become an interactive work that requires exchange, involves experience and context, and is considered as the engine of knowledge economies (Aring & Goldmark 2013). The need of a didactic for work analysis, in which know-how on the demand of the workplace would be clarified, is very urgently needed at present. A strategy for catching up the tacit knowledge of the profession would become a useful information resource, which would be exchanged between stakeholders in the TVET-system in order to enhance transformation about the quality of TVET-training and expectations of industry. Furthermore, it also supports the coordination in training workforce between them and reduces training costs.
This paper based on my research finding and the final part of my doctoral thesis will contribute to the actual state of the Vietnamese TVET and the concern about the development of curricula in Vietnam, particularly the research on the identification of professional competence through analysing the case study of a Vietnamese company. It also aims to provide suggestions for job analytical processes which can enhance the information exchange between the two sides of TVET Vietnam (state-run schools and Vietnamese industry sector) about the skills needed and shows that both stakeholders are involved in designing and conducting the training curriculum.